We hear the word laparoscopy many times in our daily life. Sometimes we hear the word laparoscopy when someone we know has gone from an operation and we know that laparoscopy is a telescopic surgery. So, in this article we will learn the essential information about laparoscopy
What is laparoscopy?
Laparoscopy is a type of telescopic surgery. It involves diagnosing and treating abdominal problems by inserting laparoscope into the abdomen. This surgery is called minimally invasive surgery or key hole surgery.
Laparoscopy is performed with a laparoscope device. A laparoscope is a tube-shaped device attached with a light and the camera. This camera is a high resolution camera. Also the light is of high intensity. So the abdominal organs as well as the condition of the disease can be visible on the screen.
Why laparoscopy is performed?
There are two main reasons for performing laparoscopy.
1. To diagnose abdominal problems.
2. To treat abdominal problems.
To diagnose abdominal problems
Now you may be wondering why laparoscopy is needed even though there are facilities like X-ray, sonography, CT scan available to diagnose the disease. In some cases, laparoscopy may be needed if the diagnosis is not made with the help of above diagnostic methods.
- X-ray – X-rays are used to photograph the abdomen using emitted rays. X-rays are used to diagnose diseases such as intestinal obstruction and kidney stones.
- Ultrasonography – In sonography, ultrasound is emitted into the abdomen by a special device, which examines the abdominal organs. Sonography is a very useful technique. Therefore, many diseases are diagnosed without exposure to radiation with the help of sonography.
- CT scan – CT scan takes X-rays of different parts of the body. One CT scan give exposure of almost 300 x rays. Still it is very helpful to diagnose if there are complications in diseases.
- MRI Scan – MRI involves photographing parts of a abdomen using magnetic and radio waves.
If all the above tests do not diagnose the disease as well as physical examination, the doctor may ask the doctor to perform laparoscopy if he/she suspect the disease.
Laparoscopy is most often performed to do a biopsy and take sample of organ for examination. Laparoscopy examines the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, appendix, spleen, small and large intestines as well as the abdominal organs and diagnoses which of the above organs is diseased.
To treat abdominal problems
If the disease is diagnosed on examination, the disease is treated immediately.
The following diseases are treated with laparoscopy
1. Inguinal hernia
2. Undescended testis
3. To remove the appendix in appendictis
4. To remove the gallbladder in cholecystitis
5. To remove the tumor in the abdomen
6. For the operation of the meckels diverticulum
7. To relieve intestinal complications
10. Ovarian surgery
How is laparoscopy done?
Laparoscopy is performed under complete anaesthesia to the patient. Complete anaesthesia does not cause the patient pain during the operation. Before anaesthesia, intracath is inserted into the patient’s vein. It helps patient from starvation as the patient has to fast for 4-5 hours before the operation.
To perform laparoscopy, the surgeon makes a 0.5 mm incision on the patient’s abdomen. A laparoscope is inserted into the abdomen through this incision. CO2 gas is released into the abdomen through this incision. So that the abdomen get distended and there will be no difficulty in examining the organs in the abdomen. Other instruments are used to perform laparoscopy from the second incision.
The laparoscope is equipped with a camera and light source. The light source makes the abdominal organs visible. Also, with the help of the camera, the space in operation can be seen on the big screen. After the laparoscopy procedure is completed, the equipments are removed, along with the gas in the abdomen, and the incisions in the abdomen are closed by sutures.
After the procedure is completed, the patient is shifted to the room and the patient remains asleep for some time
How long does it take for a patient to recover after laparoscopy?
Since complete anaesthesia is given for laparoscopy, the baby is starved for a few hours after the operation. His heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen are also monitored. Often a baby can be discharged within a few hours immediately after a laparoscopy operation.
But if the baby’s illness is serious, the baby may have to stay in the hospital for more days. For a few days after the operation, there is pain at the incision area and the doctor prescribes medicine to reduce the pain.
The most common cause of shoulder pain after laparoscopy is the co2 gas released into the abdomen, which pulls on the abdominal diaphragm and its nerves are connected to the shoulder muscles that is why shoulder pain occurs. This pain subsides in 2-3 days. Small childrens recover faster than adults after laparoscopy surgery.
What problems can be caused by laparoscopy?
Laparoscopy is a type of safe operation. Problems rarely occur after a laparoscopy operation. 2-3 out of 1000 patients have such problems. Serious problems such as infection at the site of operation, bleeding, vomiting, fever, injury to abdominal organs, injury to large arteries, allergic reactions due to anaesthesia can occur.
What are the benefits of having a laparoscopy operation?
Laparoscopy operation has many advantages over laparotomy operation. The benefits of laparoscopy operation are as follows
- The patient recovers quickly
- The pain is very less
- Very small incisions are made
- The risk of infection is very low
- Admission to the hospital is very short
- Can go to school or work early
Since the incision of the laparoscopic operation is small, the incidence of intestinal obstruction by sticking the bowel at that site of incision in the future is very low which is very high in the operation done by making a large incision(Laparotomy) which may require re-operation in future.
What is the difference between laparoscopy operation in children and laparoscopy operation in adults?
The equipments used to perform laparoscopy in young children are small. In young children, laparoscopy is performed in a very small space, so a specialist pediatric surgeon is needed to perform this operation.
There are some misconceptions in our society about laparoscopy. But it is very important for parents to know that the right treatment for their child at the right time as well as consulting the right specialist doctor will ensure a good future for the baby.
Frequently Asked Questions
Can laparoscopy operation be performed in young children?
Laparoscopic surgery can be performed from newborn to adult age group.
Is laparoscopy a small operation or a big one?
Depending on the patient’s condition, the operation may be small or large. To diagnose the disease, operations such as hernias are smaller and operations on the appendix, gallbladder, intestines and kidneys are larger.
When do babies start playing after laparoscopy surgery?
Babies start playing immediately after the laparoscopy operation. Babies can start playing in the first 24 hours as there are very few stitches on the abdomen.
What to eat after laparoscopy operation?
After the operation, preferably give your child fluids such as milk, homemade fruit juice. Solids can be fed from the second day after the operation.
After How much time you can walk after laparoscopy?
You can begin Movement 5-6 hours after laparoscopy. Walking increases blood circulation and also improves digestion. Avoid heavy work for a few days
In how many days does the gas released in the abdomen for laparoscopy decrease?
For laparoscopy, carbon dioxide gas is released to visualise the abdominal organs, but this gas gradually decreases in 3-4 days after the operation. Until then, the patient may have gas in the abdomen.
How to sleep better after laparoscopy?
After laparoscopy, it is better to lie down on your back, but it is better to sleep in a position where the patient feels comfortable sleeping.
Referance – Healthline